One cannot explain the happenings in Egypt without delving into history because it is indelibly linked. To fully understand Egypt and its issues, you must also understand the Ottoman Empire and understand it from post World War One. At its peak the Ottoman Empire included the areas of Turkey, Egypt, Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Macedonia, Hungary, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and parts of the Arabian Peninsula and North Africa. It must be also understood that Turkish rule was predominant over this area.
The Treaty of Sèvres, (Aug. 10, 1920), was a post-World War I pact between the victorious Allied powers and representatives of the government of Ottoman Turkey. The treaty abolished the Ottoman Empire and obliged Turkey to renounce all rights over Arab Asia and North Africa. The pact also provided for an independent Armenia, for an autonomous Kurdistan, and for a Greek presence in eastern Thrace and on the Anatolian west coast, as well as Greek control over the Aegean islands commanding the Dardanelles. Rejected by the new Turkish nationalist regime, the Treaty of Sèvres was replaced by the Treaty of Sèvres, (Aug. 10, 1920), post-World War I pact between the victorious Allied powers and representatives of the government of Ottoman Turkey. The treaty abolished the Ottoman Empire and obliged Turkey to renounce all rights over Arab Asia and North Africa. The pact also provided for an independent Armenia, for an autonomous Kurdistan, and for a Greek presence in eastern Thrace and on the Anatolian west coast, as well as Greek control over the Aegean islands commanding the Dardanelles. Rejected by the new Turkish nationalist regime, the Treaty of Sèvres was replaced by the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923. In this, the last of the WWI treaties, was signed by representatives of Turkey (successor to the Ottoman Empire) on one side and by Britain, France, Italy, Japan, Greece, Romania, and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (Yugoslavia) on the other. The treaty was signed at Lausanne, Switz., on July 24, 1923, after a seven-month conference. The treaty recognized the boundaries of the modern state of Turkey. Turkey made no claim to its former Arab provinces and recognized British possession of Cyprus and Italian possession of the Dodecanese.
Ok, enough of the brief history of the Ottoman Empire. All of these Arabia Asian enclaves became hard and fast monarchies and are still ruled as kingdoms by the families despite any supposed “democratic” elections. The Monarchs control the money and the power. After WWII. with the advent of the Cold War, and the Soviet Union, at the time, trying to gobble up all it could to expand its world influence, stepped into the fray and in 1956, the Middle East, as it became to be known, erupted. It was a volatile region, with the Americans and Soviets competing for influence among various nations just emerging from colonial domination and the Americans also trying simultaneously to back Israel in its conflicts against its Arab neighbors while also pursuing alliances with several of those same Arab states. And through it all, the region’s immense wealth in oil took on greater and greater strategic importance.
In Egypt, nationalist leader Gamal Abdal Nasser had asked the United States to finance the construction of the Aswan High Dam, a major hydroelectric and irrigation project on the Nile River. But the promised aid was withdrawn when Nasser seemed to flirt with Communism. Nasser’s response was surprising—he seized the Suez Canal from the British-French company that operated it. He said he would use the canal revenues to pay for the dam. In response to this “Suez crisis,” on 29 October 1956, Israeli suddenly attacked Egypt, smashing the ill-prepared Egyptian army. Two days later, Britain and France also joined the war, bombing Egypt and landing paratroopers to fight there.
The result of the crisis was to make the US a major player in the Middle East, replacing the British and French as the dominant foreign power in the region. The president, Eisenhower, solidified this position in January 1957 by proposing what became known as the Eisenhower Doctrine. When passed by Congress, it gave the president the authority to intervene in the region with aid, military assistance, or direct force, whenever he felt that a country there was threatened by the Soviets.
Ike applied the Doctrine in 1958, sending 14,000 US Army and Marine Corps soldiers into Lebanon to support the Christian government there against an Islamic faction seen as leaning toward Communism. Though the military accomplished its mission without casualties, the intervention had its drawbacks. By supporting Christians against Muslims in a local dispute, the action erased much of the goodwill Eisenhower had gained among Arabs by his Suez stance. Eisenhower saw the Middle East as an arena for a grand chess match with the Soviets. He supported or opposed the policies of governments there depending on whether he felt they were leaning toward Communism, not on their own merits. Many criticized him for failing to recognize the complex motivation and desires of Third World leaders and populations. Historian D.C. Watts wrote that Ike’s “incursion into the Middle East with the Eisenhower Doctrine was an unmitigated disaster.” For better or worse, Eisenhower’s actions involved the US directly in the tangled and bitterly contested affairs of the region. Half a century later, the United States remains as entangled as ever in Middle Eastern affairs.
D13 surmises – the above history is very important to the region today. Every President, until Obama, has observed the Eisenhower Doctrine as gospel and reacted accordingly, by propping up monarchies, theocracies, and turning a blind eye towards despots that “supported” our position against the Russians and the Chinese. The Middles East is a chess board of sorts and the oil is a convenient excuse for our intervention. But what is forgotten in all of this, is that nothing is changing in the minds of Mullahs and clerics. The restoration of the Persian Empire and one caliphate is still the primary target for the fundamentalists. We still prop up the monarchies and families of the old school. Why? Because it is to our advantage to keep these monarchies separate to keep the region destabilized supposedly in our national interest. However, the Persian Empire history runs very deep and the colonialism of France, Britain, United States, Russia, and other powers keeps the flames of a united empire burning.
Iran has a huge stake in this. Backed by Russia and China, (tacit allies at best) and the fall of the US backed Shah, Iran is trying to consolidate the rule of the old Persian and Ottoman Empires under one Caliphate. But, standing in their way is Egypt, the primary stabilizing force, backed by the United States AND ALL OF THE STILL REMAINING MONARCHIES. …..the Kingdoms, if you will. The reason that the United States will not call the Egyptian overthrow a coup is not in the best interest of the United States, however, the actions of Obama and his buddying up relationship with Hamas and Hezbollah, is beginning to isolate the United States from the only allies we have over there. Even Jordan is getting fed up with the Obama Administration its backing of the Muslim Brotherhood.
Now it is important to understand the who and what the Muslim Brotherhood is. The Brotherhood’s credo is, “Allah is our objective; the Quran is our law, the Prophet is our leader; Jihad is our way; and death for the sake of Allah is the highest of our aspirations.” The Brotherhood is a movement, not a sect, tribe. or a loose organization of ne’er do wells. It is an organized mafia….plain and simple. That is all it is and it wants to control the Persian Empire. It started as an Islamist movement back in the 1930’s but has morphed into a mafia style organization patterned after the Russian mafia after the end of the cold war. It currently has several Russian counter parts now advising the Brotherhood in covert activities…..NON MILITARY covert activities. (How to organize local indigenous populations, controlling, and executing). In short, it is a revolutionary/mafia Council…..but really well organized and primarily funded through Iran.
Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Kuwait view the Muslim Brotherhood – the Arab world’s most influential Islamist movement – as a significant security threat to the region’s authoritarian governments. Saudi Arabia and other Gulf kingdoms have pledged about $12 billion in aid to Egypt since the army toppled the democratically elected Morsi on July 3. “Saudi Arabia has stood and stands today with our brothers in Egypt against terrorism, deception and sedition,” King Abdullah said in a speech addressing the unrest in Egypt, during which he also praised the country’s military leadership.
Experts say it’s not surprising to see Saudi Arabia put security concerns in front of diplomacy. Saudi Arabia “will step in very, very fast when they feel their interests are in danger,” said Michael Stephens, a Qatar-based researcher at RUSI, an international security think tank. “The kingdom fears that the Muslim Brotherhood would work to subvert [the Gulf] monarchies region-wide.” In the past, American aid to Egypt has included armored personnel carriers, helicopters, anti-aircraft missiles, surveillance systems, fighter jets and tanks, as well as training. The U.S. has poured more than $70 billion in military and economic aid into Egypt since 1948.”The United States may have a broad concern with democracy and human rights. States within the region are more concerned with their security,” said Anthony Cordesman, former national security assistant to Senator John McCain and current Arleigh A. Burke Chair in Strategy at the Center for Strategic and International Studies.
Read Very closely to what was said…..It shows that the US still does not understand the history of the Middle East. It is plain to see that Obama, has absolutely NO CLUE as to how to handle this situation. Backing sitting Hamas and Hezbollah and the Muslim Brotherhood at the table….will solve nothing and will only exacerbate a centuries old issue. The Monarchies will never allow their security to be threatened. The US should just let the region handle the problem. Pulling aid to Egypt and giving aid to Syrian Rebels will further deepen the rift. Why? Because we do not learn from history. There is no KUMBAYAH approach to the Middle East.
The really funny thing about all of this…….Iran is a pawn in the Brotherhood’s scheme of things. Iran will never survive if the Brotherhood gains control. Oh, and before any ask, the Muslim Brotherhood is NOT THEPEOPLE’s choice. One must also understand what a “democratic” election in the Middle East actually is.